Handout: English for Kids

29 Apr

 

 UNIT 1:

PLURAL  FORM

 

A. Plural (bentuk jamak)

a. Bentuk jamak diperoleh dengan menambahkan s dibelakang kata benda tersebut.

     Contoh :     

Singular

Plural

Meaning

Book

books

Buku

Pencil

Pencils

Pensil

Chair

Chairs

Kursi

Desk

Desks

Meja

 

b. Kata benda yang berakhir dengan bunyi desis (s, sh, ch, x) bentuk jamaknya diperoleh dengan menambahkan es dibelakangnya. Contoh :

Singular

Plural

Meaning

Glass

Glasses

Gelas

Fish

Fishes

Ikan

Church

Churches

Gereja

Box

Boxes

Kotak


c. Kata benda yang berakhir dengan huruf f, fe bentuk jamaknya diperoleh dengan mengubah f, fe menjadi v dan ditambahkan es dibelakangnya. Contoh :

Singular

Plural

Meaning

Leaf

leaves

Daun

Wife

Wives

Istri

Kecuali chief (kepala/pimpinan) berubah menjadi chiefs.

d. Kata benda yang berakhir dengan huruf o tetapi didahului oleh bunyi mati, bentuk jamaknya diperoleh dengan menambah es dibelakangnya.

Singular

Plural

Meaning

Potato

Potatoes

Kentang

Tomato

Tomatoes

Tomat

Kecuali piano (piano) berubah menjadi pianos dan photo (foto) berubah menjadi photos.

Kata benda yang berakhir dengan huruf o tetapi didahului oleh  bunyi hidup, bentuk jamaknya diperoleh dengan menambah s dibelakangnya, contoh : folio menjadi folios, radio menjadi radios.

e. Apabila benda tunggalnya berakhir y tetapi didahului oleh bunyi mati, maka bentuk jamaknya diperoleh dengan merubah y menjadi i baru ditambah es dibelakangnya. Contoh :

Singular

Plural

Meaning

Lady

Ladies

Wanita

Baby

Babies

Bayi

Kecuali boy berubah menjadi boys

f.  Beberapa perkecualian tidak menuruti peraturan-peraturan tersebut di atas. Contoh :

Singular

Plural

Man

Men

Woman

Women

Foot

Feet

Tooth

Teeth

Goose

Geese

Mouse

Mice

Child

Children

 

Exercise 1

Singular

Plural

Meaning

School

schools

Sekolah

Teacher

teachers

Guru

Brother

brothers

Saudara laki-laki

Sister

sisters

Saudara perempuan

Brush

brushes

Sikat

Bus

buses

Bus

Woman

women

Perempuan

Child

children

Anak

Tooth

teeth

Gigi

Foot

feet

Kaki

 

g. Ada beberapa kata benda yang tidak dapat dijamakan (uncaountable nouns). Apabila kita ingin mengubah kata-kata tersebut, maka yang kita ubah menjadi bentuk jamak adalah satuan ukurannya.

Singular

Plural

Meaning

Oil

Two cans of oil

Minyak

Tea

Three glasses of tea

The

Coffee

Four cups of coffee

Kopi

Rice

Five plates of rice

Nasi

Gasoline

Six gallons of gasoline

Bensin

Gold

Seven grams of gold

Emas

Water

Eight glasses of water

Air

Soap

Nine bars of soap

Sabun

Paint

Ten gallons of paint

Cat

B. Verb to be (kata kerja to be)

To be (am, are, is) tidak mempunyai terjemahan tetapi mutlak dipakai sebagai kata kerja, apabila tidak ada kata kerja (action verb) pada suatu kalimat. Contoh :

I

am

here

Saya

Kamu

Kita

Mereka

Dia (pria)

Dia (wanita)

Itu (benda)

Disini

You

We

They

Are

He

She

It

Is

 

Exercise 2

Isilah dengan kata kerja TO BE pada kalimat berikut.

Contoh :  I ……………….. here every day

                 I am here every day

1.      I am A student

2.      You  are A good student

3.      John is at home

4.      Mary is a girl

5.      It is A dog

6.      We are In the classroom

7.      Mother and father are In Jakarta

8.      They are doctors

9.      I am Here every day

10.  They are old friends

11.  John is absent from class today

12.  The weather is good today

13.  John and Bill are brothers

14.  Today is Monday

15.  He and she are good students

C. Negative form (bentuk ingkar)

Dibentuk dengan menambahkan not (tidak/bukan) di belakang kata kerja TO BE. Contoh :

Positive form

Negative form

I am a teacher

I am not a teacher

You are a doctor

You are not a doctor

She is at home

She is not at home

 


 

Exercise 3

Ubahlah kalimat-kalimat ini ke bentuk ingkar. Contoh :

I am a student

I am not a student

 

Positive form

Negative form

I am at school

I am not at school

You are a good student

You are not a good student

I am well

I am not well

We are at school every day

We are not at scool every day

John is angry with you

John is not anry with you

My mother is at home

My mother is not at home

William is at the office

William is not at the office

They are good students

They are not good students

She is a clever girl

She is not a clever girl

It is cold today

It is not cold today

John and Mary are at home

John and Marry are not at home

The doctors are at the hospital

The doctors are not at the hospital

They are farmers

They are not farmers

This is a pencil

This is not a pencil

They are in Surabaya

They are not in Surabaya

 

D. Questions form (bentuk kalimat tanya)

Bentuk kalimat Tanya dari kata kerja TO BE (am, are, is) dibentuk dengan meletakan kata kerja to be tersebut di muka pokok kalimatnya. Contoh :

I

am

At school

am

I

At school?

You

We

They

Are

Are

You

We

They

He

She

It

Is

Is

He

She

It

 

Exercise 4

a. Gantilah ke bentuk kalimat tanya

Contoh :  She is at school

                Is she at school?

 

Positive form

Interogative form

You are a student

Are you a student?

Mary is here

Is Mary here?

This is a pencil

Is this a pencil?

That man is a teacher

Is that man a teacher?

That woman is a nurse

Is that woman a nurse?

We are at school every day

Are we at school every day?

Mary and John are in Jakarta

Are Mary ad John are in Jakarta?

The books are on the table

Are the books on the table?

They are in Surabaya

Are they in Surabaya?

It is a good magazine

Is it a good magazine?

It is a desk

Is it a desk?

They are farmers

Are they farmers?

They are absent from school

Are they absent from school?

You are well

Are you well?

Taty is sick

Is Taty sick?

 

b. Terjemahkan kalimat-kalimat ingkar ini ke dalam bahasa Inggris

Bentuk ingkar

Negative form

Saya tidak sakit

I am not sick

Saya bukan seorang guru

 

Anda tidak sehat

 

Anda bukan seorang dokter

 

Dia tidak berada di rumah

 

Dia tidak marah padamu

 

Dia tidak berada di dalam kelas

 

Itu bukan sebuah pensil

 

Itu bukan sebuah buku

 

Ini bukan sebuah meja

 

Ini bukan sebuah kursi

 

Mereka tidak berada di Surabaya

 

Kami tidak berada di Jakarta

 

Kami tidak lapar

 

Mereka tidak berada di rumah sakit

 

 

c. Terjemahkan kalimat-kalimat tanya ini ke dalam bahasa inggris

Bentuk kata tanya

Question form

Sakitkah saya?

 

Sakitkah anda?

 

Seorang dokterkah anda?

 

Seorang pelajarkah anda?

 

Seorang gurukah anda?

 

Apakah Mary berada di sini?

 

Apakah John berada di rumah?

 

Apakah itu sebuah buku?

 

Apakah itu sebuah meja?

 

Apakah anda lapar?

 

 

d. Jawablah pertanyaan-pertanyaan berikut dengan menggunakan jawaban YES atau NO.

Contoh :  (?)  Are you sick?

               (+)  Yes, I am sick

               (-)  No, I am not sick

 

Question form

YES  answer

NO  answer

Are you an Indonesian?

 

 

Are you a good student?

 

 

Are you here every day?

 

 

Is he at the office today?

 

 

Is he sick now?

 

 

Is he a nurse?

 

 

Are they your sisters?

 

 

Is Helen here?

 

 

Is John at school?

 

 

Is the magazine on the desk?

 

 

 

e. Jawablah pertanyaan-pertanyaan berikut yang menyatakan pilihan.

Contoh    :     Is John at school or at home?

                     John is at school

                     John is at home

Question form

Answer I

Answer II

Are you a teacher or student?

 

 

Are you hungry or thirsty?

 

 

Are you an Indonesian or an American?

 

 

Are you a good student or a bad student?

 

 

Is he in Surabaya or in Jakarta?

 

 

Is he a doctor or a farmer?

 

 

Is he sick or well?

 

 

Is she in the class or in the office?

 

 

Are we at home or at school

 

 

Are they absent or present?

 

 

 

f. Jawablah pertanyaan-pertanyaan berikut.

1. What are you ?

2. What is he ?

3. What is this?

4. What is that?

5. Where is he?

6. Where is John?

7. Where are they?

8. Where are the books?

9. Where are the pen?

g. Reading practice

I am a student. You are a student. So, we are students. We are at school from Monday to Saturday. They are students of universities. They are at the campus almost every day.

This is an English book and those are economic books. We read many books in the library. The library has a lot of books.

Mary is a clever girl. She is a good students. Miss Anna is a teacher. She likes Mary very much. She is a good teacher. She is an Indonesian. We are Indonesians.

We are not at school on holidays. We are at home or we go for recreation.

 

Jawablah pertanyaan-pertanyaan berikut.

1. What are we?

2. When are we at school?

3. Who are they?

4. When are they at campus?

5. What book is this?

6. What books is this?

7. How many books does the library have?

8. What is Mary?

9. What is miss Anna?

10. Where are we on holiday?

 

E. Identifying objects

Questions

Answers

What’s this?

That’s a book

Is this your book?

No, that’s not my book

Whose book is this?

That’s your book

And what’s that?

That’s a pen

Is that a book?

No, it isn’t. it’s a pencil

Is it yours?

Yes, it’s mine

Where’s the door?

There it is


 

UNIT  2

ADJECTIVE

A. Adjective (kata sifat)

Kata sifat adalah kata yang menerangkan atau melukiskan benda. Kata sifat dapat menempati posisi di depan kata benda yang diterangkan atau sesudah kata kerja BE.

Repeat these sentences.

1. This is a difficult English test

     This English test is difficult

2.  That is a complete city map

     That city map is complete

3. Those are diligent students

     Those students are diligent

4. That is a boring film

     That film is boring

5.  He is a popular actor

     That actor is popular

6.  Those are interesting places

     Those places are interesting

7. He is a wise manager

     Our manager is wise

8.  She is a patient housewife

     Your mother is patient

9.  She is a careful typist

     That driver is careful

10. That man is an intelligent computer operator

      That man is intelligent

11. That lady is a beautiful receptionist

       She is beautiful

12. Cobra is a dangerous snake

       That snake is dangerous

13. Gold is expensive metal

       That metal is expensive

B. Possessive adjective (kata sifat kepunyaan)

Kata sifat kepunyaan dibentuk dengan cara sebagai berikut :

Subject

Possessive

Meaning

I

My

Kepunyaan saya

You

Your

Kepunyaanmu

We

Our

Kepunyaan kita/kami

They

Their

Kepunyaan mereka

He

His

Kepunyaan pria

She

Her

Kepunyaan wanita

It

Its

Kepunyaan benda

 

Contoh :

     This is my book

     This is your pen

     Mary is his sister

     I am her brother

     Its color is blue

     Our teacher is an Indonesian

     Where are their pens?

 

Exercise 1:

a. Isilah titik-titik di bawah ini dengan kata sifat kepunyaan.

1. John is in ………………….. classroom

     2. She is on ………………………. Chair

     3. My father is in ………………… room

     4. Mary is at ……………………. Home

     5. My mother is in ………………. Room

     6. They are at ………………….. home

     7. You are on………………….. chair

     8. Our teacher is in ……………………….. office

     9. You and I are at ……………………….. desk

     10. My mother is borrow ………………………….. bag


 

b. Change the sentences into interrogative form.

     Contoh :      This is my pencil

                        Is this my pencil?

Sentence

Interrogative form

It is his book

 

She is your classmate

 

That is your motor-cycle

 

That is your bike

 

This is our classroom

 

This is their classroom

 

Her table is here

 

His seat is there

 

These are our English book

 

Your father is at his office

 

John is my brother

 

I am her sister

 

Our teacher is an Indonesian

 

Their teacher is an American

 

 

c. Translate these sentences into Indonesian

Sentences

Kalimat

Where is your pen ?

 

Where is your school?

 

Where is your classroom?

 

What is your name?

 

What is his name?

 

What is her name?

 

How are you?

 

How is your brother?

 

How is your sister?

 

How is Helen?

 

 

C. Apostrophe

Kata kepunyaan dapat juga dibentuk dengan menambahkan ‘s (apostrophe) di belakang nama orangnya, tetapi apabila nama orang tersebut sudah berakhiran dengan suara desis, maka cukup ditambahkan apostrophe saja, tanpa s. Contoh :

     This is Mary’s book

     That is John’s pencil

     It is my father’s office

     The dog’s tail is very long

     Kus’ father is in Jakarta

     The boy’s books are on the desk

     The girl’s toys are at home

Exercise 2

a. Gantilah kalimat ini dengan memakai apostrophe ‘s

Contoh :  This is the notebook of Enny

                This is Enny’s notebook

Sentences

Sentences with apostrophe

This is the book of Taty

 

That is the pencil of Helen

 

That is the chair of our teacher

 

I am a student of Mr. Yahya

 

You are a student of Mr. Rudy

 

This is the house of my friend

 

Where is the office of your father?

 

That is the office of my father

 

Where is the school of john?

 

Where are the books of Mary?

 

Where are the pens of the boys?

 

This is the desk of the girl

 

These are the chairs of the girls

 

 

b. Reading

This is my book. That is your book. Where is your pen? This is my pen. Where is your notebook? This is my notebook. That is helen’s notebook. This is John’s notebook.

My father is a teacher. He is a good teacher. His school in on Diponegoro street. He is at school every day, from seven o’clock in the morning until two o’clock in the afternoon.

My mother is a nurse. She is a good nurse. She is at the hospital everyday, from seven o’clock in the morning until four o’clock in the afternoon. She is also a good mother. She is always at home with us in the evening.


 

UNIT  3

NUMBERS

 

Reading practice

1

One

11

Eleven

30

Thirty

2

Two

12

Twelve

40

Fourty

3

Three

13

Thirteen

50

Fifty

4

Four

14

Fourteen

60

Sixty

5

Five

15

Fifteen

70

Seventy

6

Six

16

Sixteen

80

Eighty

7

Seven

17

Seventeen

90

Ninety

8

Eight

18

Eighteen

100

One hundred

9

Nine

19

Nineteen

1000

One thousand

10

Ten

20

Twenty

10.000

Ten thousand

 

Counting (berhitung)

1  +  1   =   2

One and one are two

One plus one is two

3  +  1   =   4

Three and one are four

Three plus one is four

How much is six and four?

6   +   4    =   ?

4  –  3   =   1

Four minus three is one

5  –  3   =   2

Five minus three is two

How much is ten minus eight?

10  –  8   =   ?

3  x  2   =   6

Three times two is six

4  x  2   =   8

Four times two is eight

How much is two times five ?

2   x   5  =  ?

Ten divided by five is two

10  :  5  =  2

 


 

Exercise 1

Answer the questions below.

Questions

Answers

How much is eleven plus twenty?

 

How much is eleven minus two?

 

How much is eleven minus one?

 

How much is eleven minus three?

 

How much is one hundred minus eighty?

 

How much is ten times ten?

 

How much is eleven plus eight?

 

 

Exercise 2

Questions

Answers

How much are ten and ten?

 

How much are eleven and eleven?

 

How much is twelve plus twelve?

 

How much is thirteen plus thirteen?

 

How much is twenty minus fourteen?

 

How much is sixteen minus sixteen?

 

How much is sixteen plus sixteen?

 

How much is seventeen plus twelve?

 

How much are eleven and two?

 

How much is ten plus eight?

 


 

 

UNIT  4

DAYS  AND  MONTHS

 

Terdapat tujuh hari dalam satu minggu dan dua belas bulan dalam setahun.

Hari

Days

Bulan

Months

Minggu

Sunday

Januari

January

Senin

Monday

Februari

February

Selasa

Tuesday

Maret

March

Rabu

Wednesday

April

April

Kamis

Thursday

Mei

May

Jumat

Friday

Juni

June

Sabtu

Saturday

Juli

July

 

 

Agustus

August

 

 

September

September

 

 

Oktober

October

 

 

November

November

 

 

Desember

December

 

Repeat

Sentences

Meaning

What day is today?

 

Today is Monday

 

What day was yesterday?

 

Yesterday was Sunday

 

What day is tomorrow?

 

What month is this?

 

This is January

 

Last month was December, wasn’t it?

 

Yes, it was

 

What month is next month?

 

I was in the hospital for several weeks

 

Where were you on Tuesday?

 

You were here in February, weren’t you?

 

No, I wasn’t

 

Your friend was here a week ago, wasn’t he?

 

 


 

Exercise 1

Answer these questions

Questions

Answers

What day is today?

 

What day was yesterday?

 

What day is tomorrow?

 

What month is this?

 

What month is next month?

 

Where were you last Tuesday?

 

What were you last week?

 

What day is STPK English course?

 

What day are you learn Indonesian?

 

When were you born?

 

 

Exercise 2

Translate into English

Kalimat

Sentences

Hari apakah hari ini?

 

Hari apakah kemarin?

 

Hari apakah besok?

 

Bulan apakah bulan ini?

 

Bulan apakah bulan yang lalu?

 

Bulan apakah bulan yang akan datang?

 

Dimanakah anda Sabtu yang lalu?

 

Dimanakah anda tadi pagi?

 

Dimanakah rumah anda?

 

Dimanakah sekolah anda?

 

Pukul berapa anda di rumah?

 

Pukul berapa sekarang?

 

 


 

UNIT  5

HOURS

 

Repeat

Questions

 

Answers

What time is it?

p12. 00

It is twelve o’clock

What time is it?

08.30

– It is a half past eight

– It is thirty minutes past  eight

What time is it?

11.15

– It is fifteen minutes past eleven

– It is a quarter past eleven

What time is it?

05. 00

It is five o’clock

What time is it?

07.30

 It is thirty minutes to eight

 

Reading

My name is Jonathan Thomas and I’m an engineer. Usually, I get up early, have breakfast and go to work at eight o’clock. I work hard all day, finish working at about 5.30 p.m and go home right away. I have dinner at 7 o’clock aand usually go to bed around 11 p.m. Yesterday I didn’t wake up until 8.00 a.m . I got up immedietly and got dressed. I had juice and toast and left my house at 8.45. I was an hour late and didn’t have lunch. I finished working at 7.30 last night and went home at 8.00 p.m. I was two hours late and didn’t have dinner until 9 o’clock. After dinner I read the newspaper for a while and made some telephone calls. I listened to the radio for two hours and went to bed at midnight. I didn’t go to sleep immedietly. I slept just six hours last night. I didn’t sleep very well.

 

Answer the questions below.

1. What is Jonathan’s last name and what does he do?

2. Does Jonathan usually get up late?

3. What time does Jonathan usually go to work?

4. Does he usually work hard?

5. What time does he usually finish working each day?

6. What time does Jonathan usually have dinner?

7. What time did Jonathan wake up yesterday morning?

8. Did Jonathan have a big breakfast yesterday morning?

9. How late was Jonathaan yesterday morning?

10. What time did he have lunch yesterday?


UNIT  6

IMPERATIVE  FORMS

 

Kalimat perintah (imperative forms) dalam bahasa Inggris ditandai dengan penambahan kata kerja (action verb) PLEASE dan kata kerja (verb) BE. Kata PLEASE dapat ditambahkan pada awal maupun akhir kalimat perintah. Contoh :

 

Drink your tea, please

Please, Drink your tea

Walk slowly, please

Please,Walk slowly

Come in, please

Please,Come in

Speak slowly, please

Please,Speak slowly

Study hard, please

Please,Study hard

Speak clearly, please

Please,Speak clearly

Speak loudly, please

Please,Speak loudly

Don’t wait here, please

Please,Don’t wait here

Don’t tell Mary about it, please

Please,Don’t tell Mary about it

Don/t drink my milk, please

Please,Don/t drink my milk

Don’t mention it, please

Please,Don’t mention it

Come back later, please

Please,Come back later

Open your book, please

Please,Open your book

Don’t smoke here, please

Please,Don’t smoke here

 

Beberapa contoh kalimat imperative yang menggunakan verb BE adalah :

Be quiet, please

Don’t be late, please

Be here, please

Don’t be noisy, please

Be patient, please

Don’t be crazy, please

Be good, please

Don’t be lazy, please

Be careful, please

Don’t be naughty, please

 


 

UNIT  7

ARTICLES

 

A. Indefenite article (kata sandang tak tentu)

Kata sandang tak tentu a dan an dipakai di depan sebuah benda tak tentu atau bersifat umum. Kata sandang a dipakai di depan kata benda tunggal yang diwali dengan huruf konsonan. Contoh :

            I have a book

            He bought a pencil

            She drinks a cup of coffee

Kata sandang an dipakai di depan kata benda tunggal yang diawali dengan huruf vokal. Contoh :

            I eat an apple

            You ate an egg

            A bird is an animal

Exercises

a. Fill in with a or an 

1. I am …………….. student

2. You write ………….. letter

3. John bought ………………. book yesterday

4. I eat …………………… egg every morning

5. He is ………………… good boy

6. There is ………………. Man in the office

7. There is ………………. Orange on the table

8. There is …………………. English book

9. There is ………………….. university in this city

10. That is …………………….. history book


 

b. Change to plural form

Contoh :   A cat has a long tail

                 Cats have long tails

Singular

Plural

A cow is a domestic animal

 

A tiger is a wild animal

 

A banana is yellow in color

 

A leaf is green in color

 

A lion is also a wil animal

 

A chicken is a bird

 

A carrot is a vegetable

 

A football is round

 

A house has a roof

 

A book has a cover

 

 

B. Devinite article THE

a. THE dipakai di depan kata benda (singular and plural) yang sudah tentu atau bersifat khusus. Contoh :

Water is important

(Bersifat umum)

The water in this glass is dirty

Khusus air dalam gelas ini saja

Gold is expensive

(Bersifat umum)

The gold in this ring is 24 carrats

Khusus emas di cincin saja

 

b. THE juga dipakai di depan kata benda yang sudah diperbincangkan sebelumnya. Contoh :

I met a girl in the cinema yesterday. The girl asked me about time

There was a man walking with a dog. The man brought the dog to a veterinarian.

Kata sandang THE tidak digunakan di depan nama orang, kota, jalan, daerah, negara, dan sebagainya, kecuali nama itu dipakai sebagai kata sifat. Contoh :

Jailolo

West Halmahera

Indonesia

The Jailolo population

The Indonesian Republic

The Indonesian language

 


 

Exercise

Fill in with THE if it is necessary

Contoh :  We all need ………………… water

                We all need water

1. ………………….. water in this glass is dirty

2. ………………….. air in the room is good

3. I like …………… fresh air

4. ………………… leather in these shoes is very good

5. ………………… book which I bought is an English book

6. You always drink ……………. Water with your meal

7. ………………. Light in this class is very good

8. We have ……………….. good light in our class

9. We study …………….. history of Indonesia

10. …………… history is an interesting subjects


 

UNIT  8

Present tense

 

Kata kerja pada present tense (waktu sekarang) dapat berbentuk sebagai berikut.

I

You

We

They

Work

Walk

Read

Study

Play

Do

Go

He

She

It

Works

Walks

Reads

Studies

Plays

Does

Goes

 

He, she, dan it dalam present tense dengan tambahan s pada kata kerja, dengan pengecualian kata kerja yang berakhiran y di belakang huruf mati seperti study, maka y diganti dengan i kemudian ditambahkan es menjadi studies.

He, she, dan it yang memakai kata kerja berakhiran o di belakang huruf mati seperti do, go ditambahkan es pada kata kerja tersebut menjadi does dan goes.

Exercise 1

Use the correct verbs

1. I ……………………. (drink) much tea

2. I ……………………. (play) football

3. You ………………………… (go) to school

4. You ………………………… (walk) very slowly

5. He ………………………….. (play) badminton

6. John …………………………. (do) his homework

7. She ……………………………. (speak) English well

8. Helen ……………………… (go) to Jakarta

9. This pen …………………………. (work) well

10. We ………………………………. (like) to study English

11. You and I ………………………. (play) football every Sunday

12. Helen and Taty ………………………. (study) at my school

13. They ………………………….. (drink) much coffee

Bentuk ingkar (negative form) diperoleh dengan menambahkan kata DO NOT atau DOES NOT di belakang kata kerjanya. Contoh :

I

You

We

They

do

not

Work well

He

She

It

does

not

Work well

 

Bentuk tanya (interrogative form) diperoleh dengan menempatkan kata do di depan pokok kalimat atau does di depan he, she, it. Contoh :

(+) You study English

(-)  You do not study English

(?)  Do you study English?

Exercise 2

Change into negative and interrogative forms.

Sentences

Negative form

Interrogative form

You walk to your school

 

 

You study every day

 

 

He buys his book in Surabaya

 

 

Your father goes to his office

 

 

Your brother plays football

 

 

Your sister studies with me at school

 

 

She writes her lessons

 

 

Ria likes to come here

 

 

My father works in Surabaya

 

 

He speaks English very well

 

 

 

Exercise 3

Reading

I study English every day. You also study English every day. Mary studies English every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. John does not study English every day.

My father works in Surabaya. He goes to his office by bus. He gets up at five o’clock. He arrives at his office at six-thirty. He works at his office from seven o’clock in the morning until four o’clock in the afternoon. My father likes to play badminton. I play badminton with my father at the same place. Do you like to play badminton? Do you like to play football? Does your father like to play football? Does your mother like to play badminton? I like to play badminton, but I do not like to play football.


 

Unit  9

USING DICTIONARY

 

A. Part of speech

Mengetahui jenis kata (part of speech) sangat penting untuk menebak arti kata-kata tersebut. Contoh :

1. He tried to answer the question

     (‘answer’ pada kalimat diatas adalah kata kerja infinitif ‘to answer’)

2. It is difficult to find an answer to the problem

     (‘answer’ pada kalimat di atas merupakan objek ; sehingga merupakan kata benda)

Dengan demikian dalam beberapa kasus, perbedaan jenis kata yang berbeda dapat memiliki cara pengejaan yang sama. Beberapa contoh lain, yaitu :

Verb

Noun

Cause

Cause

Change

Change

Dream

Dream

Drink

Drink

Edge

Edge

Glow

Glow

Mark

Mark

Watch

Watch

Water

Water

 

Beberapa kata lain berhubungan pula satu sama lain dalam satu kelompok kata. Walaupun biasanya sangat mudah untuk mengidentifikasi jenis kata, namun adanya kelompok kata dapat membingungkan karena masing-masing kata dalam kelompok kata memiliki arti sendiri. Misalnya ‘agreement’ menupakan kata benda, sedangkan ‘agreeable’ merupakan kata sifat, dan ‘to agree’ merupakan kata kerja.

Dengan melihat huruf terakhir pada suatu kata, kita dapat mengidentifikasi jenis kata yang dimaksudkan. Misalnya :

a. Membedakan kata benda dengan kata kerja

Kata kerja

akhiran

Kata benda

Store

-age

Storage

Accept

-ance

Acceptance

Insist

-ence

Insistence

Agree

-ment

Agreement

Authorize

-sion/-tion

authorization

b. Membedakan kata benda dari kata sifat

Kata sifat

Akhiran

Kata benda

Convenient

-ce

Convenience

Redundant

-cy

Redundancy

Opposite

-tion

Opposition

Soft

-ness

Softness

Durable

-ty

durability

 

c. Membedakan kata sifat dari kata benda

Kata benda

akhiran

Kata sifat

Possibility

-able/-ible

Possible

Intention

-al

Intentional

Distance

-ant

Distant

Frequency

-ent

Frequent

Juice

-y

Juicy

 

d. Membedakan kata keterangan dengan kata sifat

Kata sifat

Akhiran

Kata keterangan

Efficient

-ly

efficiently

 

Exercise

Identify the part of speech of each underlined word, and then write the related words

Application for admission to the Graduate School at this university must be made on forms provided by the Director of Admissions. An applicant whose undergraduate work was done at another institution should request that two copies of undergraduate transcript and degrees be sent directly to the Dean of the Graduate School. Both the application and the transcripts must be on file at least one month prior to the registration date, and must be accompanied by a nonrefundable ten-dollar check or money order to cover the cost of processing the application.

An undergraduate student of this university who has senior status and is within ten credit hours of completing all requirements for graduation may register for graduate work with the recommendation of the chairperson of the department and the approval of the Dean of the Graduate School.

Students who have already been admitted to the Graduate School but were not enrolled.


 

Word/lines

verb

noun

adjective

Adverb

Application (1)

 

 

 

 

Applicant (2)

 

 

 

 

Work (2)

 

 

 

 

Request (3)

 

 

 

 

Directly (4)

 

 

 

 

File (5)

 

 

 

 

Check (6)

 

 

 

 

Senior (8)

 

 

 

 

Requirement (9)

 

 

 

 

Register (9)

 

 

 

 

Graduate (9)

 

 

 

 

Approval (10)

 

 

 

 

 

B. Using a dictionary

Kamus tidak perlu digunakan untuk mengartikan kata per kata karena suatu kata dapat diartikan dengan cara menebak artinya dalam suatu konteks kalimat. Namun kamus dapat digunakan untuk menentukan klasifikasi, cara pengucapan, dan bentuk tenses dari suatu kata.

Kamus dapat membantu kita untuk mengklasifikasikan kata termasuk dalam jenis noun (kata benda), verb (kata kerja), adj. (kata sifat), adv. (kata keterangan), pre. (preposisi), dan conj. (kata penghubung). Singkatan kata diletakan di urutan awal arti dalam kamus.

a. Read these dictionary entries and answer the questions about them

Sight-seeing/ ‘sait,si’ing/ n visiting places of interest usu. While on a vacation: We often  go sightseeing. –see also SIGHT – sightseer/sait, si’e/n

 

 

 

1. What part of speech is sightseeing ?

2. What is the dictionary definition of the word?

3. What word is related to it ?

b. Answer the following questions based on the dictionary entry below

1. How many parts of speech does the word ‘coach’ have?

2. Which definition (noun or verb) of ‘coach’ means ‘a person who trains athletes’?

3. As a noun how many meanings does the word ‘coach’ have?

4. What is the other definition of the word?

Coach/k__utf/n  1. Teacher esp one who gives private lessons to prepare students for a public examination;  2. Person who trains athlete for contects: a baseball  Vt, vi teach or train:  sb for an exam;  the crew for the boat race

 

 

 

UNIT  10

MODAL  CONSTRUCTION

 

A. Modal auxiliary (kata bantu pengandaian) adalah kata kerja bantu yang digunakan untuk mengandaikan suatu kejadian, seperti : can, may, will, must (+ V1), dll, yang menunjukan kepastian/kebolehjadian. Contoh :        

1. The final test will be held next week

         (ini berarti akan dilaksanakan minggu depan; sesuai jadwal dilaksanakan minggu depan)

2. The final test can be held next

         (ini berarti sangat mungkin dilaksanakan minggu depan)

3.  The final test may be held next week

         (ini berarti kemungkinan dilaksanakan minggu depan)

4. The final test might be held next week

          (ini berarti kemungkinan kecil dilaksanakan minggu depan)

5.  The final test must be held next week

(ini berarti berdasarkan kesimpulan saya, akan dilaksanakan minggu depan)

 

B. Kadang kala modal construction dapat digunakan untuk menolong pembaca memahami konteks waktu suatu kejadian berlangsung. Contoh :

1. Indeed, he could be the best president we’ve ever had (dia bukan Presiden terbaik kita)

2. We should have helped the poor (Kita tidak pernah menolong orang miskin)

3. I would build big hospitals for the poor if I were rich (saya tidak membangun rumah sakit besar karena saya bukan orang kaya)

C. Apabila membentuk kalimat negatif, cukup dengan menambahkan kata not di belakang kata kerja bantu tersebut.

Contoh : He can not speak English

       You may not smoke here

       She must not study hard to pass the exam

D.Bentuk pertanyaan (question form) cukup dengan menempatkan kata kerja bantu tersebut sebelum pokok kalimatnya.

Contoh : Can he speak English?

                   May you smoke here?

                   Must she study hard to pass the exam?


UNIT  11

LETTER

 

A. Introductory letter (surat perkenalan)

                                                                                                           Jailolo, 9th December 2009

Dear Erna,

I guess you are surprised to receive this letter. I know your name and address from my friend. He is your pen friend. His name is Anton. He told me that we have the same hobbies, so I write to you.

I like reading novels. My favorite authors are Agatha Christie and Sidney Sheldon. Do you like sport? I like badminton.

I would be very happy if you want to write to me often, telling me about your surroundings.

Erna, I close this letter. Please do not forget to write.

I send you my kind regards.

                                                                                                                    Your truly,

                                                                                                                          Andy

 

 

B. Curriculum vitae (daftar riwayat hidup)

Name (nama)                                      :  ………………………………………………………………………………….

Date of birth (tgl. Lahir)                     :  ………………………………………………………………………………….

Age (umur)                                          :  ………………………………………………………………………………….

Adress (alamat)                                  :  ………………………………………………………………………………….

Sex (jenis kelamin)                              :  (Male/Female)

Marital status (status pernikahan)     :  (Single/Marriage)

Education (pendidikan)                       :  ………………………………………………………………………………….

                                                               ………………………………………………………………………………….

                                                               ………………………………………………………………………………….

                                                               ………………………………………………………………………………….

Experiences (pengalaman)                 :  …………………………………………………………………………………

                                                               …………………………………………………………………………..

                                                               ………………………………………………………………………………….

Hobbies (kegemaran)                         :  ………………………………………………………………………………….

 

C. Invitation letter

 

 

Mr. and  Mrs. Bambang Satyo

Request the honour of your presence

At the first birthday of our son

 

Satyo Adi

 

On Sunday, the fourth of June 2009

At nine o’clock

At kedinding tengah 4 B/17

Surabaya


 

UNIT  12

CONVERSATION

 

A. Greetings and meetings (Salam dan pertemuan)

Dialogue 1

John  :  Hello, Bill

Bill    :  Good morning, John

John  :  How are you?

Bill    :  Fine, thanks

John  :  How is Helen?

Bill    :  She’s very well, thank you

John  :  Good bye, Bill

Bill    :  Good bye, John

 

Dialogue 2

Helen             :        Good morning, Mrs. Brown

Mrs. Brown    :        Good morning, Helen

Helen             :        How are you this morning, Mrs. Brown?

Mrs. Brown    :        I’am very well, thank you. And how are you?

Helen             :        Fine, thanks. How is Mr. Brown?

Mrs. Brown    :        Mr. Brown is fine, thank you

Helen             :        Good bye, Mrs. Brown

Mrs. Brown    :        Good bye, Helen. See you tomorrow

 

a. Answer these questions

Questions

Answers

1. Good morning. How are you?

 

2. Good afternoon. How are you?

 

3. Good afternoon. How is Helen?

 

4. How are you today?

 

5. How is Mrs. Brown this morning?

 

6. Good morning. How is Helen?

 

7. Is Mrs.Brown well this morning?

 

8. How is Martha, is she well?

 

9. Are Bill and Mary well this morning?

 

10. Are you Helen?

 

11. Good morning, Mary. How is your brother?

 

12. See you tomorrow, Martha

 

 


 

b. Translate these sentences into English.

Kalimat

Sentences

Halo, John. Selamat pagi.

 

Halo, Bill. Selamat sore.

 

Halo, Helen. Apa kabar?

 

Bagaimana keadaan Helen?

 

Ia sehat-sehat saja, terima kasih

 

Bagaimana kabar John?

 

Ia baik-baik saja, terima kasih

 

Andakah Bill Jones?

 

Andakah John Smith?

 

Ya, betul. Saya John Smith

 

Selamat berpisah, Martha. Sampai jumpa lagi

 

Selamat berpisah, Mary. Sampai bertemu besok

 

 

B. Introducing (perkenalan)

a. Introducing yourself (memperkenalkan diri sendiri)

     Good afternoon, let me introduce my self. My name is Marlen. I live in Jailolo. I’am 17th years old. I’m in the second class of high school. I have three brothers and one sister. My hobbies are reading and travelling. Thank you.

(Selamat sore, ijinkan saya memperkenalkan diri. Nama saya Marlen. Saya tinggal di Jailolo. Umur saya 17 tahun. Saya kelas II SMA. Saya mempunyai 3 saudara laki-laki dan 1 saudara perempuan. Kesukaan saya adalah membaca dan jalan-jalan. Terima kasih)

b. Introducing each other (saling berkenalan)

A  :  May I introduce my self. I’m Firman

B  :  How do you do? My name is Indah

A  :  How do you do? Its nice to meet you

B  :  Nice to meet you too

c. Introducing someone to another (memperkenalkan orang lain)

A  :  Mother, I want to introduce my classmate to you

B  :  Hello, my name is Wawan

C  :  Hello, I’m Mrs. Ibrahim. How do you do?

B  :  How do you do? I’m glad to meet you Mrs. Ibrahim

C  :  Nice to meet you too

(katakan  sambil Wawan dan Mrs. Ibrahim berjabat tangan)


 

d. Introducing a speaker (memperkenalkan seorang pembicara)

– Ladies and gentlemen. I have a great pleasure in introducing our speaker today, Mr. John Smith.

(Bapak-bapak dan ibu-ibu, dengan senang hati saya perkenalkan pembicara kita hari ini, Bapak John Smith)

    First of all, I’d like to introduce our guest star, Mr John Smith.

(pertama-tama saya akan memperkenalkan bintang tamu kita, Mr. John Smith)

 

C. Like and dislike (suka dan tidak suka)

A:     What food do you like?

B:     I like fried rice with scrambled egg, and you?

A:     I like soto. By the way, do you know there is a dangdut show tomorrow?

B:     Oh, yes, but I don’t like dangdut at all

A:     I’m very been on dangdut

 

D. Agreement and disagreement (setuju dan tidak setuju)

A:     What will you do next holiday?

B:     I’ll visit my uncle. Will you join me?

A:     No, thanks. I have to accompany my mother

B:     What about going to the cinema tonight?

A:     That’s a good idea

 

E. Apologizing (minta maaf)

A:     Aw, you have stepped on my toe

B:     I’m very sory. I’m in a hurry

A :     That’s all right

B:     Are you hurt?

A:     No. I’m all right, don’t wory

B:     You’re very kind

A:     Don’t mention it

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

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